学习方法指导

书面表达句式优化七妙招

文章来源:本站原创作者:佚名 发布时间:2012年12月28日 点击数: 次 字体:

英语书面表达,最令同学们头疼的不是不会审题、不会构思,而是词不达意,写不出想要表达的意思,写不出优美的、高级的句子。新课标高考的评分标准是:除“要点齐全、语言基本无误、行文连贯、表达准确”之外,还需“尽量使用复杂的结构或较高级的词汇,具备较强的语言能力”。因此,同学们要在写出正确的句子的基础之上,对句子进行优化,使篇章在考场上脱颖而出。接下来,笔者以近三年高考真题中出现的典型句子为例进行讲解。

  一、用词准确,搭配无误

  为了完整、准确、清楚地表达文意。平时要牢记重点词的用法、搭配、惯用语,以减少不必要的错误,从而提高作文的档次。

  不可忽视各种词性的用法:形容词修饰名词,充当定语,也可放在系动词后,充当表语。动词在句中作谓语,用副词来修饰;动词若想在句中充当主语,须变为动名词;及物动词后接宾语,由名词、代词或句子来充当;而不及物动词只能接状语,若想接宾语,须借助介词;情态动词后面接动词原形,介词后接词或短语.连词后接句子。

  例1 Don’t be self-center and try to be considerable.We must learn to handle conflicts calm and wise.(一般表达)

  Don’t be self-centered and try to be considerate.We must learn to handle conflicts calmly and wisely.(高级表达)

  二、避免重复和汉式英语

  在确保行文流畅的前提下,需要语言简洁、不重复,语句灵活多变、丰富多彩。另外,表达要符合英语思维、避免把汉语与英语一一对应翻译。

  例2 Even the students wh0 used to dislike English have a result that they are interested in the subject.(一般表达)

  Even the students who used to dislike English have turned out to be interested in the subject.(高级表达)

  在文章中可使用一些高级句式结构,以提高语言的表述层次。特别指出的是:对于某些要点,可以有多种表达方式,同学们应选择自己最熟悉、最有把握的句型来表达;对于不好直接表达的句子要学会“曲线表达”,遇到生疏的词语要避开并灵活变通。

  1.it句型.使句子更优美

  例3 The picture convinces me it is even more important to be a good daughter than a “good” student.(2011江苏卷)

  该句用了句型It is important/necessary/common/impossible/difficult/convenient +for sb. to do sth.,增加了句子的文采。

  例4 Isn’t it a pleasure to have great calm in mind while you are reading?(2012北京卷)

  该句使用了…it’s a pleasure / a shame / a great joy to do ...”,增加了表的的层次。

  it句型还有很多,如:it is said / known / reported / mentioned / proved / announced / accepted that ...

  it’s one’s duty / turn / fault / honor / to do... It is / has been+一段时间+since+一般过去时。

  it’s no good / no harm / no point that ... it’s high time that... It is+ adj.(心理品质)+ of + sb. +to do。

  2.强调句,使句子更别致

  强调句的基本结构:it is / was+被强调部分+其他成分。

  例5 Working in teams instead of on my own has freed me of trouble and made my work more efficient.(一般表达)

  It is working in teams instead of on my own that has freed me of trouble and made my work more efficient.(高级表达)

  3.with复合结构.使句子更精练

  with复合结构为with+名词/代词+现在分词/过去分词/形容词/副词/介词,常作伴随状语,能更准确地表达所述内容的前后逻辑关系。

  例6 The park was full of freshness and beauty of spring.The sun was shining and birds were singing.(一般表达)

  The park was full of freshness and beauty of spring with the sun shining and birds singing.(高级表达)

  4.主从复合句,使句子更高级

  高考评分标准要求“尽量使用较复杂的结构”,没有复合句的文章很难成为一篇优秀的文章。主从复合句的运用能使前后的句子形成一个有机的整体,读起来顺畅自然,一气呵成。

  (1)运用定语从句

  例7 There are many beautiful and colorful pictures along with texts.The pictures can help us understand English better.(一般表达)

  Along with the texts there are many beautiful and colorful pictures,which can help us understand English better.(高级表达)

  (2)运用名词性从句

  例8 I like reading literary books,especially those by famous writers.(一般表达)

  What interests me most is literary books,especially those by famous writers.(高级表达)

  (3)运用状语从句

  例9 High grades are an important factor in evaluating students and their future university admission.But development in wisdom,emotion,health and life attitude should never be ignored.(一般表达)

  Although high grades are an important factor in evaluating students and their future university admission,development in wisdom,emotion,health and life attitude should never be ignored.(高级表达)

  5.非谓语动词,使句子更简洁

  学了以上方法,同学们可以总结出:过多使用简单句,会让人觉得松散、单调、乏味,但过多使用复合句,会显得累赘、费劲。若能恰当地运用非谓语动词对简单句和复合句进行转换。就会使句子读起来言简意赅。

  例10 They spat and threw rubbish into the lake.And they totally ignored the noticeable sign “No littering nearby”.(一般表达)

  They spat and threw rubbish into the lake,totally ignoring the noticeable sign “No littering nearby”.(高级表达)

  6.倒装句,使句子更精彩

  例11 We can live in more comfortable and beautiful surroundings in this way.(一般表达)

  Only in this way can we live in more comfortable and beautiful surroundings.(高级表达)

  7.被动句,使句子更灵活

  例12 At the same time,people should encourage students to develop good habits and better themselves.(一般表达)

  At the same time,students should be encouraged to develop good habits and better themselves.(高级表达)

  例13 We prefer fluency in Chinese.We expect the adviser to work 4 hours per week.(一般表达)

  Fluency in Chinese is preferred and the adviser the adviser is expected to work 4 hours per week.(高级表达)

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